Cross – Eye Syndrome

Cross-Eye is the situation where the two eyes can’t adapt working in a straight way together as a team.

In such a situation; one eye looks directly at the object you're looking at, the other eye looks misaligned, outward, upward or downward. This is known as strabismus.

Strabismus can be fixed or intermittent. Misalignment can also always affect the same eye (unilateral strabismus) or misalignment of two eyes (alternative strabismus) may occur.

To prevent double vision from congenital and early childhood strabismus, the brain ignores the visual input of the misaligned eye, which typically causes amblyopia or lazy eye.



Cross – Eye Symptoms

The main symptom is that the eyes are visibly misaligned; flips an eye in, out, up, down, or at an oblique angle.

When the misalignment of the eyes is large and open, strabismus is called "wide angle", which refers to the angle of deviation between the line of sight of the straight eye and the angle of view of the misaligned eye. Less pronounced eye misalignments are called small-angle strabismus.

Typically, constant wide-angle strabismus does not cause symptoms such as eye strain and headaches, since there is almost no attempt to correct the eyes by the brain. Therefore, wide-angle strabismus often causes severe laziness in the eyes that are left if left untreated.

Less noticeable cases of small angled strabismus are more likely to cause annoying visual symptoms, especially if strabismus is intermittent or variable. In addition to headaches and eye fatigue, symptoms can include comfortably poor reading, fatigue when reading, or unstable or shaky vision. If the small angled strabismus is fixed and unilateral, it may lead to pronounced laziness in the misaligned eye.

Both wide-angle and small-angle strabismus can cause psychological damage and, together with the situation, affect the self-confidence of children and adults, often interfere with normal eye contact with others, causing frequent shyness and accompanying distress.

Newborns often have intermittent crossed eyes due to poor vision development, but this often disappears as the baby grows and the visual system continues to mature. However, most types of strabismus do not disappear as the child grows up.

Routine eye exams of children are the best way to detect strabismus. In general, early strabismus is detected and treated after an eye examination of a child, the result is more successful. Without treatment, your child may develop visual symptoms that may hinder double reading, eye laziness, or reading / classroom learning.

Why Does Cross Eye Occur?

Each eye has six external muscles (called extraocular muscles) that control eye position and movement. For normal vision, the position, neurological control and functioning of these muscles for both eyes should be perfectly coordinated.

Strabismus occurs when there are neurological or anatomical problems that hinder the control and function of the extraocular muscles. The problem may occur in the muscles themselves or in the nerve or vision centers that control the vision of the binoculars in the brain.

Genetics can also play a role; If you or your partner has strabismus, your children are also at higher risk of developing strabismus


In most cases, the only effective treatment for a continuous eye return is surgery. If your ophthalmologist detects strabismus, it can refer you to an ophthalmologist specializing in strabismus surgery.

The success of strabismus surgery depends on many factors, such as the direction and magnitude of the eye rotation. In some cases, more than one surgery may be required. Strabismus surgeon can give you more information about this during the preoperative consultation.

Strabismus surgery can also effectively align the eyes of adults with prolonged strabismus. However, in most adult strabismus cases, a significant degree of laziness may remain even after the affected eye is properly aligned. Therefore, early treatment is very important for strabismus.



If early strabismus is treated surgically, the affected eye develops normal visual acuity and the two eyes work together as a team.

In some intermittent and small angle strabismus cases, it may be possible to improve eye level with non-surgical vision therapy.

For example, the lack of convergence is a certain type of intermittent exotropia, where the eyes are usually properly aligned when viewing a distant object, but cannot read or maintain a proper alignment when looking at a near object, such as the appearance of an object.

Insufficiency of convergence can prevent eye reading, causing eye strain, blurred vision, double vision and headache. Non-surgical vision therapy seems to be an effective treatment for convergence failure.

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